An Havdallah Experience, by Angus and Batya Wootten

via An Havdallah Experience – B’ney Yosef North America 

[Editor’s note: Did you ever consider the connection between mercy and sacrifice? Messiah Yeshua did, as we know from this exchange with the spiritual leaders of His day:

When the Pharisees saw this, they said to His disciples, “Why does this Teacher of yours eat with tax collectors and sinners?” But when He heard this, Yeshua said, “Those who are healthy have no need for a doctor, but those who are sick do. Now go and learn what this means: ‘Mercy I desire, and not sacrifice.’ For I didn’t come to call the righteous, but the sinful.” (Matthew 9:11-13 TLV)

This is an interesting and complex contrast between two very different concepts. When Angus and Batya Wootten wrote this article in 1995, they provided a piercing observation about that contrast, saying, “those who concentrate on ‘sacrifice’ are looking to ‘the letter of the Law.’ . . . However, the man who makes ‘mercy’ his focus, that man is directing himself – and others – toward ‘life.” They came to that beautiful conclusion through a series of encounters with Jewish families in Jerusalem. That is the background of the wise counsel they present here.]


An Havdallah Experience
By Angus and Batya Wootten – July 1995
We want to share an experience with you. It took place in Jerusalem years ago, and it changed our lives. It is a story about Believers, a Jewish family, a Jewish tradition, and a hope.It begins as we are on our way to Israel, to finalize plans for an upcoming House of David tour to the Land. We had been to Israel several times, taking small groups that joined with other tour groups, but now we wanted to host our own tour. And so there we were, flying on El Al Airlines, going back to our “homeland.”

Batya: “Father, I ask that You please lead and guide us on this trip,” I was praying silently. “With all my heart I want You to do a work in and through us. And while we have a lot of ideas about our tour itinerary, we have no set plan for this ‘planning’ visit. . . . ”

The prayer in my heart trailed off. I felt a little anxious, a little foolish. We had no real itinerary, we were just going to Israel, our primary purpose being, so we thought, to work out a tour that would be “different.” So I went back to my prayer, to almost pleading, “Please Father, I really want You to do a work in us. I really want You to guide us. . . . ”

I had plenty of time to get lost in my quiet time with the Father because Angus, who was sitting next to me, was totally engrossed in conversation with the man seated next to him. And so I sat there praying, and rejoicing in the fact that we were having the opportunity to return to Israel.

After a bit, Angus introduced the man to me, “Sweetheart, this is Uzi Wexler,” he said, “He lives in Jerusalem.”

“Hi,” Uzi said, “Let me be the first to officially welcome you to Jerusalem.”

“Thank you,” I replied. I also commented on his exquisite gold lapel pin, a lion poised on hind feet, as if taking a stand, ready to defend if necessary. My comment about his “lion” led him to explain that it was an “official logo” and that he was the Treasurer of the City of Jerusalem.

“Well, Angus certainly got an interesting seat mate,” I thought. However, it was hard for me to enter into their conversation because of the noise on the plane, and so l just tried to keep my excitement at getting closer to Israel at a reasonable level, and watched the Orthodox men as they gathered together on the eastern side of the plane to pray.

When we arrived at the Ben Gurion Airport, Uzi invited Angus and me to join his family in a few days, in what he called, their “little family Havdallah celebration.” We readily accepted the invitation.

Uzi also said he Wanted to help us to see a bit of Israel, so he arranged for us to join a brief tour that was being hosted by none other than the Israeli Minister of Tourism.

So it is that the next day we joined a private group of very wealthy Jewish people who were helping to fund the State, and, among other things, were being given a private showing of some new excavations in Jerusalem, such as the Tower of David. They also were meeting with the current Prime Minister, Yitzhak Shamir.

“Wow! Talk about getting a Tour Guide.” I said to Angus after we left the group. “This sure is the way to see the City!”

The short tour had had been both inspiring and lots of fun with nice people. “And,” I thought, poster tube in hand, “The Tourism Minister gave each of us some decorative posters as mementos.”

The next day, Uzi arranged for us to meet one of the leading artists in Israel, Yossi Stern, a man who had been painting pictures in Jerusalem for more than a quarter of a century. As Yossi said, he painted portraits of the Prophets, and of “The people of the Book.”

“I cannot escape a constant recognition of the great heritage of this place and our people. It cries out from every corner of this City of David and the Prophets,” he told us.

Angus Wootten as “Gabriel,” by Yossi Stern.

Yossi really liked Angus, joking that he looked like one of the Prophets, or like a great Angel that had come to make an announcement from on high. Jokingly, he nicknamed Angus “Gabriel.” In addition, Yossi also painted as he said, “With the people of Israel.” Meaning, at his art shows he would have an individual unknowingly scribble on a piece of paper, then he would amaze them as he turned their scribbling into a caricature of the individual. And, he graciously did caricatures of both of us, after he told us to, “Just scribble something on a piece of paper.”

That day, Yossi also blessed us with complimentary autographed gift copies of books of his artwork, some black and white prints, and that night he even had an employee hand deliver autographed prints of two of his pictures of Jerusalem, with a little note to “Gabriel and Mrs. Gabriel.” Since we had shared briefly with him about the “two houses of Israel” and about how “Ephraim also needed to come home,” Yossi encouraged us to “Come and be his neighbor” and to, “Make Israel your permanent home.”

Batya Wootten as “Mrs. Gabriel,” by Yossi Stern.

That particular trip to Israel was filled with unusual experiences and wonderful encounters, but the most moving experience was celebrating Havdallah with the Wexler family.

In Jewish tradition, both the beginning and the end of the Sabbath day is celebrated. Havdallah is an end of Sabbath ritual that consists of a brief ceremony wherein blessings are recited over a cup of wine (to be shared), over a braided candle (to be lit) and aromatic spices (to be passed and sniffed). In Hebrew, Havdallah, means, “division, distinction.” Used as a rite of separation, it serves to separate the holy from the mundane, marking the end of the holy Sabbath and the beginning of the commonplace workweek.

During the service, some fill the wine cup to overflowing, to symbolize their hope of a coming week that is overflowing with blessings. For this reason, goblets that are especially designed for Havdallah usually come with a small saucer.

The Havdallah candle is a braided candle, having more than one wick, to correspond with the plural “lights” in the proscribed benediction. Woven in colorful strands, the most popular color combination is blue and white.

The spicebox (hadas) used in the ceremony is often an object of decoration, some being very ornate, and crafted in silver, brass, ceramic, wood, etc. Frequently, these spice boxes are family heirlooms. Whether passed down from generation to generation, or brand new, these boxes usually are filled with a mixture of cloves, nutmeg, and bayleaf.

According to the Dictionary of the Jewish Religion, by Isaacson and Gross, “Spices were used extensively in ancient times,” and, “It was customary to burn spices after a meal and recite a blessing before smelling them,” which they say, “Is the probable origin for sniffing spices at the Havdallah service” (page 153).

Also, in The Jewish Book of Why, by Alfred J. Kolatch, we are told that, “The origin of this ceremony is attributed to the fourth and fifth century B.C.E. Men of the Great Assembly (Berachot 33a)” (page 178).

To this ancient tradition, some add their own touches. Such as, during the celebration the wife may utter a farewell to the Sabbath in the form of an old Yiddish hymn:

Dear Sabbath Day doth now depart-

May the coming week be blessed

With good fortune and good deeds.

And, since our particular Sabbath in Jerusalem was quickly departing, Angus and I hurried to Uzi’s, or rather, to what we later learned was the Wexler family compound.

You see, Uzi’s father had commanded the Israeli Army forces in Jerusalem during the War of Independence in 1948. And the majority of his family lived on the very hill that he had battled for, and taken. There, Mr. Wexler and family had built their family compound. Further, the elder Mr. Wexler, who, along with his wife, also was present for the Havdallah celebration, had since become one of the leading publishers of Judaica in the State of Israel.

Uzi’s wife, too, was present, she being a Supreme Court Justice for the State. His sister likewise was there, minus her husband, a Texas oil developer who had to be away on business. Also present was Uzi’s youngest brother, who was being groomed to take over the family publishing business. And then, there was Uzi’s other brother. The one who greeted us at the door. He was one of the leading brain surgeons of the world – and also a painter – one who specialized in stark, telling, painful, black and white Holocaust paintings.

This week, Havdallah would take place at Dr. Wexler’s place, and it seemed that almost immediately we were in his lower level studio. There, he was showing me his brutally frank Holocaust paintings.

Looking around, I could feel both his anger, and his desire to be polite, even hospitable, to one whom he regarded to be a “Christian.”

“How would you explain the Holocaust?” he asked me after viewing some of his lithographs.

I could feel his inner turmoil. I also felt as though he were almost “baiting” me. “I believe words fail when one tries to explain the Holocaust.”

I answered quietly. I really wanted this man to know that I felt I did not have a right to speak in this matter. I had not been there. I had not lost family members. I did not have a favorite aunt that had been forced to be a “field whore,” and then to be hung when drunken, pawing men tired of her. I did not have little cousins that had been forced to help dig a mass grave, only to be shot and thrown in with hundreds of others. None of my family had been forced to wear the “yellow star” that marked millions for incarceration and death.

Wexler Holocaust prints presented by the artist to Angus and Batya Wootten.

Dr. Wexler watched me go through the fifteen piece set several times, each time being no less shocking, no less telling, than before.

“Would you like to have a set of the prints?” he asked me.

It touched me that this man who had experienced so much grief seemed to be reaching out to me. “I would be very honored to have them,” I said.

He put the prints in their printed packet and handed them to me. “Let’s go up for Havdallah,” the Doctor said, pointing up the steps.

I could feel his change in demeanor, and followed him up to the living room, carrying a package that spoke volumes under my arm.

There, we all chatted for a while, getting acquainted. Everyone was asking us questions, about our faith, and our family.

Since Angus and I had years before put our two families together, I told them, “We came home from our honeymoon to a house full of seven children, and the fireworks started.”

“Yes. But so far, we’ve survived.” Angus chimed in.

Everyone laughed as we told story after story about our children.

After a time, Uzi called the grandchildren in from their play for Havdallah. Excitedly, they all gathered around their Grandfather, each one vying for a spot closer to him. Shotglass size servings of wine were poured for all, including the children. The senior Wexler lifted his glass and said the Barucha. Again, he said a blessing and lit the candle. Another blessing and he passed the spices for all to smell.

I watched as this beautiful, lively, family blessed the God of Israel, thanking Him for giving them the blessing that is the Sabbath. Then, at the Grandfather’s leading, everyone lifted their glasses, drank, and then shouted, “Shavu’a Tov!”

“Yes,” I thought, “This fine family will have a ‘Good Week!’”

I was truly moved by their “family faith.” I knew that, while they did not know Messiah, they were praying to the same Father God to whom I prayed. And I could feel His pleasure in the closeness of their family.

After their brief “ceremony,” in true Orthodox fashion, all the men began to gather around the dining room table, and the women to moved toward the living room.

As we were taking our seats, everyone was talking at once. The men were asking Angus questions, and the ladies wanted me to tell them more about Angus’ third daughter, Linda.

“Linda is our ‘miracle child,’” I said, taking a seat on the sofa. Then I told them how she who had so little hope – in having to face the many battles that came with her very premature birth and resultant cerebral palsy – had experienced many answers to prayers that so many had been made in her behalf to the God of Israel.

For one thing, Linda had met Marsden, a big, good looking guy, who happened to work in the hospital she stayed in when she had to have yet another of her more than twenty operations. Though the need for another operation appeared to be a curse, the Father used the opportunity for Marsden and Linda to meet.

“Linda always had to wear leg braces and a lift on her shoe,” I said “And she was asking God to heal her so that she wouldn’t have to wear them any longer. And, at her wedding to Marsden, the pastor tried to get her to come in the back door, by the altar. ‘So she won’t have very far to walk,’ the pastor said.”

“But Linda said ‘No. All my life I’ve dreamed of walking down the aisle on my Father’s arm,’ she told the pastor. ‘And nothing is going to steal that dream from me.’”

“Believe me,” I told the Wexler ladies, “When Linda walked down that long aisle, holding onto her Father’s arm, there was not a dry eye in the place. Because they all knew her story.”

Now I must admit that while I was very happy to be able to share about all the wonderful things that had happened to Linda, truthfully, I must say that I have never been so double-minded in my life:

I found that I wanted to both talk and listen at the same time! Because, when I began to talk about Linda, at the same time, I could hear Mr. Wexler saying to Angus, “Now Angus, tell us. . . .”

Angus: “Angus, tell us what the House of David is all about.”

This is the question put before me by the Patriarch of the Wexler clan. Personally, as a retired Army Colonel, I appreciated this man who, in the 1948 War of Independence, had commanded the forces of Israel that had battled to keep a portion of the City of David in Jewish hands, and, at the end of the ’67 war, had seen the entire city once again in the hands of the descendants of David.

As I searched for an answer to give this orthodox Jew, and his sons, a multitude of thoughts raced through my mind. To begin with, I felt presumptuous even being in this place and talking to these men about restoring David’s fallen tent. I was well aware of the deep division between Christians and Jews, and here, in the City of David, I, a son of Joseph, he being the son who had received the birthright and the double portion, I was talking to sons of Judah, the son who had received the promise of the “scepter,” the son who became the progenitor of David, the king, from whom came Yeshua, the Messiah. I also knew of the chasm that was created when Yahveh divided Israel into the northern and southern kingdoms of Israel, the Kingdom of Judah and the Kingdom of Israel. Almost three thousand years had passed since that fateful division, and over twenty-seven hundred years had passed since the last vestige of Israel, or the Lost Ten Tribes as they are popularly known, had been absorbed into the Gentile nations, in fulfillment of the punishment of which the Prophet Hosea had forewarned: “You will become a people who are not a people.”

While the punishment of Israel, meaning of not knowing who they were, and of not understanding their roots, had been extremely effective over these long centuries, it was obviously coming to a close. We knew first-hand that there were now people around the world who were having the blindness removed from their eyes: They were beginning to see and understand their own heritage as part of the people of Israel, and to experience a “knowing” like the “knowing” one has of their personal relationship with the God of Israel.

And so now, here, a son of Joseph, through his son Ephraim, an Ephraimite, one who knew who he was, had just finished celebrating the close of the Scriptural Sabbath with men of Judah, men who knew very well who they were as sons of Judah. And, this had taken place in the City of David.

I thought back to the time when all Israel had gathered at Hebron to turn the kingdom of Saul over to David, in fulfilment of the word of the Lord. I remembered that of the 300,000 plus men of Israel who gathered at Hebron to make David king of all Israel, only 6,800 were from Judah. So I was confident that in the restoration of David’s kingdom and the return of His Greater Son, the other tribes (other than Judah) would once again play a significant role. And, I perceived that the playing out of that role had commenced.

I also knew that even though my Grandmother was Jewish, because I believed in Yeshua, the Wexlers saw me as a Christian, though not the run-of-the-mill tract distributor whose mission was to convert Jews to their particular denomination. Further, on the plane, in my conversation with Uzi, I had made it clear that we were not missionaries, at least not in the usual sense. “Our mission is not to convert Jews,” I told him, “Our mission is to restore relationships between the two houses of Israel. Not by having one house convert to one of the many doctrines of the other house, but rather, by reestablishing the fact that we are ‘family.’ And, as a united family it will be much easier to have a united belief in the Holy One of Israel as He is revealed in the fulness of His Glory.”

Uzi had seemed to receive what I said on the plane, but now, I wondered, “How do I convey all of my thoughts in my answer?” The elder Wexler’s question, “What is the House of David all about?” hung in the air. Drawing a deep breath, and asking the Holy Spirit to speak through me, I answered: “We believe that Scripture clearly shows that there were and still are two houses of Israel, Ephraim and Judah. Further, remnants of these two houses exist today not only among the Jewish people, but also among those who are called Christians. The mission of House of David is to identify that remnant, especially among Christians, and to encourage them to return to their Hebraic roots, which we believe is a prelude to the reunion of all Israel into one united house. Last, but certainly not least, we seek to encourage members of both houses to have the personal relationship with the God of Israel that Abraham, Isaac and Jacob had.”

The smiles on their faces, and comments like, “We certainly agree with that” told me the Wexler men had no problem with my answer. They also were in agreement that many from the Northern Tribes of Israel had been scattered among the nations, and would, one day, in fulfillment of Scripture, be regathered. They applauded the goal of modern-day Israelites having the same relationship with the God of Israel as did the Patriarchs. Additionally, they appreciated our interest in, and participation in, the Havdallah celebration that closed out the Sabbath day.

“It seems that, rather than man-ordained feast days that once honored pagan gods, the members of the family of Israel should keep the feasts of Israel. Especially since they are the feasts given them by the God of Israel,” I told them.

The bottom line of how they felt was that House of David had a “more challenging” job in trying to present its message to the Christian community, than it did to the Jewish people.

After a while, Batya and I thanked the Wexler family for an enjoyable evening and began to make our way to the front door.

Uzi followed us. “Feel free to call on me if ever you need me for anything,” he told us as we were leaving. “I’m not just saying this to be polite, I really mean it. Call me if I can ever help you.”

“Thanks, Uzi. Thank you very much. We’ll be in touch.”

“Wonderful evening,” I told Batya as we made our way down the walkway.

“Wonderful people,”  Batya replied.

Batya: “I felt the Spirit of God there when we were praying,” I told Angus, as we were driving back to our hotel.

“It was encouraging,” I continued, “Their whole family gathered together and thanked the God of Israel for the gift of the Sabbath.”

“What we experienced is very precious to me. So precious that I hardly want to talk about it. Because sometimes, words fall short,” I said softly. Deep in thought, I almost mumbled, “Right now it’s hard to describe what’s in my heart.”

“I know what you mean,” Angus said. But he was really trying to concentrate, since he was driving in a strange country.

“Slow down, sweetheart, this is where we turn for the hotel. . . .”

Havdallah Celebrations: A Treasured Time of Fellowship

Our visit with the Wexler family is something we cherish to this day. It left a precious, lasting impression on our beings. However, we also cherish our present-day Havdallah celebrations. They are special to us because they are times that we spend with very special friends.

On most Saturday evenings we gather with friends for a “pot-luck” supper, and for a short Havdallah celebration. We use our own Havdallah Hagaddah, or a shortened, or sometimes a lengthened, version thereof. Or we use the Hagaddah of a friend, or a shortened or lengthened version of his Hagaddah, or a combination of both, or . . . (this list goes on ad infinitum). The point is, we are not ritualistic at our Havdallah gatherings.

When we gather with our friends, we do not gather because of the Havdallah ceremony. Rather, our celebration is an outgrowth of the most important thing that is happening, and that is our fellowship. True fellowship is the ingredient that makes Havdallah special, and for that matter, all “religious” celebrations a treasure. Without true fellowship our gatherings become dead tradition. This remains true whether the origins of the celebration are Christian or Jewish.

And, speaking of the origins of celebrations. . . .

A Philosophical Mistake

In one of our Newsletters, entitled, “Who Told You?” Angus points out how, in his book Ten Philosophical Mistakes, Mortimer J. Adler, America’s foremost philosopher, explores ten major errors in the development of modern thought.[1] Adler also examines the serious consequences these errors have on our everyday lives.

The bottom line of Adler’s conclusion is that the most common, disastrous mistake of modern man is that he invents new kinds of wisdom, only to use that wisdom to continue building on a faulty foundation! In other words, he fails to go back to ground zero and to begin to build on ancient and original truths!

Armed with this truth, as Messianic Israelites who truly desire to put an end to all our “religious” mistakes, and to begin building on ancient and original truths, we ask an all-important question:

How then, should we celebrate?

To answer this vital query, we look to the Early Believers, to see how they celebrated.

The Meaning of “The First Day of The Week”

We know the Early Believers got together at the end of the Sabbath day because in Acts 20:7 we read that: “On the first day of the week, when we were gathered together to break bread, Paul began talking to them, intending to depart the next day, and he kept on talking until midnight.”

To fully understand this verse we must remember that, according to Hebrew reckoning, the day begins at evening: “Elohim called the light day, and the darkness He called night. And there was evening and there was morning, one day” (Genesis l:5). In Hebrew thought, the day begins in the evening. Thus, when the Early Believers gathered together “on the first day of the week,” they were gathering on what Westerners would call “Saturday night.”

Why did they choose this time to get together?

The Word speaks of “Peter and John” going “up to the temple at the ninth hour, the hour of prayer.” And of an angel of the Lord who told the Apostles to, “Go and speak to the people in the temple the whole message of this Life.” Also, the Apostle “Paul took men, and . . . purifying himself along with them, went into the temple, giving notice of the completion of the days of purification, until the sacrifice was offered for each one of them” (Acts 3:1-8; 5:18-25, 42; 21:26).

In all probability, the Apostles were busy during the Sabbath, “going to the Temple,” that they might be witnesses to those who had not yet heard the “good news of the restoration of the Kingdom of Israel.” To be “recharged” in their efforts, they got together with other Believers at the end of the day, in the evening, at what technically was called, “the first day of the week.”

Also, at that time, they “gathered together to break bread.” This means they were literally sharing a meal, and/or, they were “breaking bread” even as Yeshua “broke bread,” meaning, partaking in some fashion of what has come to be known as “communion.”

There, the Apostle Paul was “talking to them,” and he “kept on with” his “speech,” or “logos” until midnight (he talked for so long that some poor fellow, apparently overcome with fumes from the “many lamps” (Havdallah?) burning in the room, fell out the window, dying from the fall – but was raised from the dead (Acts 20:8-10).

However, the Greek word used to describe Paul’s “talking,” is dialegomai, which means, to discuss, as in argument or exhortation, to dispute, to preach, and to reason with.[2] It also is said that Paul was delivering a “logos,” which can mean he was giving a speech, preaching, teaching about a doctrine (or any combination thereof), or that he was reasoning, questioning, or, just plain “talking.”[3]

These words well describe that which took place, and still takes place, when disciples gather[ed] around their rabbi. It describes the animated, “everyone speaks his opinion,” Jewish Yeshiva.

A System That Prevents Growth

In contradistinction to this ancient “discussion” format for hundreds of years the organized “Church” has functioned in a “one man speaks and all the others listen” format. Sadly, this system has led to a Church that is filled with weak little sheep that have never learned how to flex their spiritual muscles. For the most part, they have not had the opportunity to argue, nor to exhort, nor to dispute, nor to be able to reason with, the “leadership.” In most Church Services they do not dare question what is being taught from the pulpit.

Certainly there must be a place in the Body of Messiah for leadership to teach. And, disciples must “appreciate those who diligently labor among” them, “and have charge over them in the Lord” and “give them instruction” (1 Thessalonians 5:12).

However, there also must be a place for disciples to grow. Somehow, disciples must be allowed to fulfill their Divine command to, “Speak the truth in love,” and thus “to grow up in all aspects into Him, who is the head, even Messiah” (Ephesians 4:15). Somewhere, they must be allowed to follow the Biblical command: “Beloved, do not believe every spirit, but test the spirits to see whether they are from Yahveh; because many false prophets have gone out into the world” (1 John 4:1). They must be encouraged to “put to the test those who call themselves apostles, but are not.” They must learn to discern between real and false apostles (Revelation 2:2). This is especially true as we enter into these latter days, when “false Messiahs and false prophets will arise and will show great signs and wonders, so as to mislead, if possible, even the elect” (Matthew 24:24). In this latter-day, all Believers need to have their spiritual senses sharpened. And this will happen only when they are allowed to exercise their spiritual muscles in the ancient pattern of Godly, growth-inspiring, Yeshiva-type discussions.

The Solution

The solution is for us to go back to ground zero and to begin building on ancient, original truths. And, if we hope to follow in the footsteps of the Apostles, then the most appropriate time for us to gather together is, Saturday night And, the most appropriate program is the “talking, debating, Yeshiva” approach portrayed in Scripture.

For those who do choose to gather on Saturday night, and do desire to see the reunion of the two houses, and full restoration of the fallen booth of David, the Havdallah celebration – which can serve as a “bridge” between two warring peoples – can be especially meaningful, and that, for several reasons:

An Opportunity to Grow Up In Messiah

To begin meeting at the end of the Sabbath gives us time during the day to spend with our family. And, all Believers need to concentrate on “being a family,” because the unspoken testimony of a healthy family is one Of the most powerful testimonies known to man.

Also, meeting late in the day gives us time to rest, and when we truly rest, desisting from all labor, the truth that our Provider is caring for us in all things becomes self-evident, in that we do not have to work. It is an amazing principle: The Father teaches us about His love and provision for us, by allowing us to rest – as is defined in Isaiah: “If because of the Sabbath, you turn your foot from doing your own pleasure on My holy day, and call the Sabbath a delight, the holy day of Yahveh honorable, and shall honor it, desisting from your own ways, from seeking your own pleasure, and speaking your own word, then you will take delight in Yahveh, and I will make you ride on the heights of the earth; and I will feed you with the heritage of Jacob your father, for the mouth of Yahveh has spoken” (Isaiah  58:13-14).

When we gather, and, like the Bereans of old (Acts 17:10-12), discuss the Word, many things can happen: We can both exhort others, and if necessary, be exhorted. When we hear something that we feel opposes the full truth of Scripture, we can dispute it. However, what we say also can be disputed. In other words, we can, and should, question one another. Further, we should learn how to reason with one another and not be quick to discard someone because they do not believe exactly as we do. In fact, if we force ourselves to reason with the individual, it causes us to hone and sharpen the truth of what we believe (or, we may be honed). Additionally, if a point in Scripture becomes alive to an individual, they have an opportunity to teach and/or preach about it to their group.

In essence, when we get together without an emphasis on structure, and pursue a Yeshiva-type, question and answer format, we give the Spirit the opportunity to use each of us in marvelous ways. If we will but trust the Ruach haKodesh (Holy Spirit), He will see that all get to use their spiritual muscles, regardless of size. And the marvelous result is: spiritual growth in all!

Speaking the truth in love, we are to grow up in all aspects into Him, who is the head, even Messiah, from whom the whole body, being fitted and held together by that which every joint supplies, according to the proper working of each individual part, causes the growth of the body for the building up of itself in love. (Ephesians 4:15-16)

The Trouble With Tradition. . . .

Regarding any “traditions” that we follow at our Havdallah celebrations, or for that matter, at all our Messianic Israel celebrations, we note that it has been our experience that (all of?) man’s religious traditions are tainted. For example: Yeshua’s name was not Jesus, and He was not born on December 25th. Nor is Rosh Hashanah, the “head of the year,” as is claimed. For Yahveh declared that “Abib” shall be the head of the months for us. Further, to celebrate the “Exodus” Passover, is not equivalent to celebrating Messiah’s Resurrection. Therefore, it is not accurate to have a “Passover versus Easter” war. Passover is a celebration of both our “deliverance,” and of Messiah’s “death.” To celebrate His Resurrection, however, one would celebrate the “day of First-fruits.” So it is that the “Christian versus Jewish war of traditions” is full of such untruths and misunderstandings.[4]

It also has been our experience over the years that Believers very often go “tilt,” when they become enamored with Jewish people, and Judaism. Needless to say, many “Christians” also go “tilt” when it comes to “Israel.” Not understanding how they fit into the plan – and the Father’s plan, according to Isaiah 8:14, includes “both the houses of Israel” – they enter into the sin of Replacement Theology.

On the other hand, those who are infatuated with “Jewishness” often declare that “The Church has nothing to offer” Jewish people. (But, what they offer is the fact that, between the two houses, they alone have been declaring that “Jesus” is the “Christ” for the past two thousand years – and even though their message is distorted, still, Yeshua is the most important “offering” of all time.) Further, these Believers seem to think all “Jewish” traditions are Biblically acceptable.

The heart motivation of these “pro-Jewish” Believers may be to try to right a terrible wrong the Church has perpetrated against the Jewish people. However, these too must realize that the Father has declared that “both the houses of Israel, stumble over the Sanctuary.” Both stumble over the “Sanctuary,” for, “All have sinned and fall short of the glory of God” (Isaiah 8:14; John 2:22; Romans 3:23).

Havdallah: An Ancient Tradition

Because it is the desire of those of Messianic Israel to return to ground zero, and to build on original truths, we point out the following regarding the traditional Jewish Havdallah celebration:

Again, according to The Jewish Book of Why, by Alfred J. Kolatch, “The origin of this ceremony is attributed to the fourth and fifth century B.C.E. Men of the Great Assembly (Berachot 33a)” (page 178). Thus, the Havdallah tradition began several hundred years before the time of the Apostles. And, it very well may be that that is what the apostles were celebrating the night the gentleman fell out the window.

This is not to say that everything about the traditional Havdallah celebration is untainted, for, Kolatch, when he answers the question, “Why is the Havdala cup of wine filled to overflowing?” says, “Filling the cup to overflowing is considered a good omen, an expression of hope that the week to follow will bring with it goodness in abundance. The origin of the custom is rooted in the belief, common in early societies, that the spilling of wine is a safeguard against evil spirits. These spirits, it was believed, could be bribed with a bit of wine (Eruvin 65a)” (pg 178).

We agree, such superstitious beliefs were “common in early societies.” This is confirmed in the book, The Star of David: “Superstition flourished in both circles [Jewish and Christian], because people simply did not have the same access to the Scriptures that we have today. Therefore, their understanding was darkened.”[5]

Since man’s traditions are just that, “man’s traditions,” and since we are seeking for the truth of the matter, we again ask the question: How then, do we celebrate?

Mercy

The following may not at first appear to be the answer, but it is:

Once, when Messiah was chastening some Pharisees, He said to them: “Go and learn what this means: ‘I desire mercy, more than sacrifice.’ For I have not come to call the righteous, but sinners.” (Matthew 9:11-13)

The point behind Messiah’s declaration: “I desire mercy, more than sacrifice” (note the correct translation: “more than,” and not, instead of), is that, those who concentrate on “sacrifice” are looking to “the letter of the Law.” And that “kills” (2 Corinthians 3:6). However, the man who makes “mercy” his focus, that man is directing himself – and others – toward “life.”

As those of Messianic Israel, as those who seek to be delivered from all “religious” bondage, we will have to walk where no man has walked before. To get there, we must travel a road that is paved with “mercy.” To find our way there, we must focus on “life.”

“Mercy,” and not the fine details of “sacrifice,” is the answer to our “how do we” quest: For Yahveh’s mercies are new every morning. He is always doing a new thing. And, in this latter day, if we will walk aright, He will do a new thing in and through us. But first, a golden road of mercy must be made to run through our hearts.

While we are not called to ignore, nor be oblivious to the kind of “sacrifice” being made, we are called to focus on “mercy.” We must remember that is Yahveh’s “kindness” that leads us to repentance (Romans 2:4). Thus, we must ask of ourselves: Do we parade ourselves as a (self-)righteous “sacrifice,” as one who is “sacrificing” their life to God by doing everything “right”? Or, do we simply try to do “justly,” and thus to issue a humble call to the sinner? The latter must be our intent, because: “He has shown you, O man, what is good. And what does Yahveh require of you? To act justly and to love mercy and to walk humbly with your Elohim” (Micah 6:8).

Restated, all who hope to enroll in and graduate from, the School of Reunion of The Two Houses of Israel, will have to “major” in mercy.

The solution is for us to go back to ground zero and to begin to build on the faith of the Apostles. And that means that, like them, the restoration of the Kingdom to Israel will be of utmost importance to us (Acts l:6). Further, to reunite two peoples, who for so long have been so bitterly divided, then, rather than the letter of “sacrifice,” we will have to be more concerned with living a life of “mercy.”

A Prophetic Declaration

Jerusalem, by Yossi Stern (1923-1992). Presented by the artist to Angus and Batya Wootten. (All rights reserved.)

Again, we gather every week with friends to celebrate Havdallah. But our celebration is different. It varies in that, before the meal, we relight the Sabbath candles and we have one person to represent “Ephraim” and one to represent “Judah.” Then, they each use their candle to light the braided Havdallah candle. Afterward, they extinguish their individual candles, symbolizing the end of their “separateness,” and, together, they lift high the one, braided, and brightly lit, Havdallah candle, while declaring their unity in Messiah.

We celebrate this way because, for all of us, the braided Havdallah candle represents our hope in the full reunion of the two houses of Israel. To us, it represents Ephraim and Judah as they become “one stick” in the Father’s hand (Ezekiel 37:15-28).

Additionally, we added “two sticks” of cinnamon to our spice box, praying a two-fold prayer as we pass it: that our lives be as “a fragrant aroma, an acceptable sacrifice, well pleasing to our God” (Philippians 4: l8), and that He might use us in the coming week to help make the “two sticks” one in His hand.”

For us, Havdallah is a very prophetic, hope-filled celebration. In our hearts we are declaring to the spirit realm, and to all the world, that we believe the Father’s glorious promises: We believe that we all truly will grow up in Messiah, and that our God will keep the promise He made in Ezekiel 37:

He will yet make us “one” people on the mountains of Israel.

There, we all will live an unending, Shavu’a Tov!


[1] See Angus and Batya Wootten, “Who Told You?,” House of David Herald 5-10, October 1993.

[2] Strong’s Greek word # 256.

[3] Strong’s Greek word # 3056.

[4] See Batya Wootten, “Restoring the Fallen Booth of David: The Tabernacles Celebration,” “Yaveh’s Calendar Versus Compromise With Babylon and Rome,” “The Father’s End-Time Passover Plan for Ephraim,” and “Shavuot and the Two Leavened Loaves,” House of David Herald 5-9 (September 1993), 6-8 (August 1994), 9-2 (February 1997), and 9-5 (May 1997)

[5] Batya Ruth Wootten, The Star of David, House of David, 1965.

The Greco, Roman, Westernized Church: Good and Bad, by Angus and Batya Wootten

[Editor’s note: Has there ever been a time that the people of God have served Him without error? Never – or at least, not yet. Even at the dedication of the Tabernacle, grievous error caused the untimely deaths of Aaron’s two sons when they made serious mistakes in their priestly service (Leviticus 10:1-7). Whether it is incomplete or erroneous understanding of scripture, or unrighteous heart attitudes, Abraham’s children in both Houses of Israel have always come short of the glory of God.
This is problem enough when it interferes with our relationship with the Almighty, but how much human suffering has this caused because one segment of the people, whether Jewish or Christian, regards the other as wrong and subject to judgment? That, of course, is the entire story of human history. The question for us, it would seem, is whether we will continue in this way, or transcend the examples of the past and bring lasting peace in the Lord’s house.
Angus and Batya Wootten probed that question in this article first published in 1994. They counsel that instead of finding fault both with the institutional church and with Judaism, we should recognize that each is doing a work commissioned by our Heavenly King, and that they are indispensable to the restoration of His Kingdom. With that as our starting point, maybe we can serve as a bridge between the two, finding a way to bring these two houses of Israel together in peace and reconciliation.]


The Greco, Roman, Westernized Church: Good and Bad

By Angus and Batya Wootten – April 1994

It is time for we who love all Israel to awaken the melo goyim, to stir up the “fullness of Gentiles.” We must awaken the “other” house of Israel, Ephraim. We must arouse him to the truth of his roots.[1]

Our Father speaks of a day when He “hears Ephraim grieving,” it is a time when the children of those destined to become a “melo goyim” cry out: “O Lord, You have chastened me, but I needed it. I behaved as an untrained calf, refusing to accept Your yoke. I ask You now to bring me back to allow me to return in repentance, for my exile has led me to remorse. Surely now that I have been instructed, now that I have come to know the truth about myself, I have repented. In great humility, I smote myself on the thigh, I beat myself on the breast, because I am thoroughly ashamed of the pagan sin and disgrace of my youth.” (Jeremiah 31: 18, 19, Authors Amplified Translation).[2]

This prophesied grieving brings about a great change in this “fullness of Gentiles.” Ephraim finally turns from his centuries-long penchant for paganism. He no longer wants to be like the Gentiles; rather, he longs to walk as an Israelite (Hosea 1-2). This means, once awakened to the newfound truth of his long-hidden roots, once he tums from pagan practices, he is immediately faced with the question: “How do I now celebrate the God of Israel?”

One thing is certain, if God is calling Ephraim away from every dead tradition found in institutional Christianity, we can rest assured that He is not calling him into any Jewish practices that might likewise be lifeless and ritualistic. Neither is he to return to a First Century Faith, wherein non-Jews were publicly shunned at the dinner table (Galatians 2:12). No. The God of Israel is One whose “mercies are new every morning.” He is always “doing a new thing in the earth.”[3] And, if we will allow Him, then in this latter-day, He will do a new thing in and through us. He will use us to bring forth that which is worthy from both houses of Israel.

But, for now. . . .

“To Leave Or Not To Leave,” That Is The Question

Only the Father in Heaven knows exactly where He wants each of us at any given time, and each one must follow His leading for their lives (John 16:13). He alone tells us when to stay and when to go, thus, House of David does not encourage a “Church Exodus.”

On the other hand, we cannot ignore the self-evident problems of the institutionalized Church, nor the possibility that some segments of the Institutional Church might be given over to the Anti-Christ. “In the last days, difficult times will come. For men will be . . . holding to a form of godliness, although they have denied its power. . . And indeed, all who desire to live godly lives in Messiah Yeshua will be persecuted.” (2 Timothy 3:1-15; also see Revelation 1 3:3).[4] Many believe the Seven Churches listed in the Book of Revelation also represent Seven Church Ages, the last being the Laodicean, that being the one that gets spewed out of Messiah’s mouth (Revelation 3:16).[5] Thus, all true Believers will ultimately be forced to leave that Church.

In these latter days, when as individuals we face the all-important question about leaving a Church, in each case we must consider the faith and actions of the particular Church body, as well as its leadership. We must evaluate it against the truth of Scripture, and then we must act accordingly.

The Hallmarks Of A True Shepherd

The Good Shepherd – John 10:1-16, Jesus Mafa, Cameroon, 1973, Vanderbilt Divinity Library.

Regarding leadership, we know that true shepherds “guard,” “tend,” “feed,” and “gently lead” the sheep entrusted to their care. However, Ezekiel spoke of a time when Yahveh’s sheep would have shepherds who would not feed the flock, nor seek for the scattered, nor strengthen the sickly, nor bind up the broken. Rather, they would dominate the flock with force and severity; they would feed and cloth themselves rather than their sheep; and they would tread down pastures and foul the waters with their feet. Yahveh says He will be “against” those shepherds, and that He will “demand His sheep from them.” (Acts 20:28; John 21:15-17; Isaiah 40:11; Ezekiel 34:1-31)[6]

Many shepherds turn the Scriptural instructions to “guard,” into a mandate to “control.” Ruling with “severity,” they do so in the name of “protection.”

Locked in Denominational pens, many feel they are starving. And rightly so, for they are fed no more than the milk diet of Hebrews 6:1-2, which instructs us to “press on, beyond the elementary points, which are repentance, faith, baptism, laying on of hands, resurrection/rapture, and eternal judgement.” Sadly, because that is all that is taught, many are bored beyond belief – starved for the “meat” of the Word.[7]

These sheep are made to drink from muddied Doctrinal Waters, and all who seek to clarify them are pounced upon. Their Shepherds appear to be unaware of the verse: “When you assemble, each one has a psalm, a teaching, a revelation, a tongue, an interpretation. . . .” (I Corinthians 14:26)

Sheep caught in such pens are not encouraged to exercise their spiritual muscles, which exercise is the duty of a good shepherd. Rather, they are made to sit quietly in their pew-pens. That their muscles atrophy from lack of use is of no concern. The important thing is whether or not they give their funds, and whether they bring more sheep to Church, that they might also be counted. For great numbers of sheep is the goal of the shepherd. And, those who help accomplish his goal are rewarded with an empty title.

Yet, even so, there are those who, for various legitimate reasons, are being called by the Father to serve Him in these Churches. . . .

Free To Encourage Or Exhort

Those called to such Church ministry should pattern their actions after Messiah. While Yeshua participated in synagogue activities, He nonetheless held Himself apart from what He called “their” system.[8] And so He remained free to encourage or admonish: “Woe to you Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! . . . These are the things you should have done. . . .” (Matthew 23:23) Like our Master, Titus 1:9 instructs each of us to, “exhort and refute with sound doctrine.” Like Yeshua, we must be dedicated to our Father’s truth, and we must be faithful, fearless, and fair, when presenting that truth.[9] If we are not faithful, we disappoint Messiah. If we are fearful, the Institution is influencing us and not we the Institution. If we are not fair we add to an ancient problem.

Just Weights And Measures

In addition to the vast array of wrongs perpetrated by the Church against her own – very often, when non-Jewish Believers first become aware of their brother, Judah, in defense of the countless wrongs perpetrated against Jewish people in the name of the Church, they wrongfully become negative about every aspect of the Church.

However, the Word declares that, “differing weights and measures arc abominable to the Lord.” Yahveh demands that His children use “’Just weights and measures.” This holds true for Christianity and Judaism alike (Proverbs 20:10; 16:11; Leviticus 19:36).

Thus, in defense of the good the Church has done, ask any Believer: “What is the most wonderful thing that has ever happened to you?” Invariably, the reply is, “Meeting Messiah.”

A personal encounter with Messiah Yeshua is glorious, life-changing. There is nothing to which it can be compared. And yet, our Father has allowed that for hundreds and hundreds of years, this most wonderful of encounters has been made possible through – perhaps more accurately, in spite of – the efforts of the Greco Roman, Westernized, Cultural Church.

Good and Bad. The Church system that every true Believer owes some credit to, for bringing them into the most glorious event known to man, also is full of error.

How then should we regard this Church?

We must give her credit for the good she has done: Proclaiming, preserving and publishing the New Covenant, telling the world about Jesus and His salvation. For, she has been the primary source for aiding many in the world to know Messiah. Also, we must judge her with “righteous judgement” (John 7:24), which is to judge with perfect equity. For, that is the way Yeshua will judge us: “We must all appear before the judgment seat of Messiah, that each one may be recompensed for his deeds in the body, according to what he has done, whether good or bad.” (2 Corinthians 5:10) To rightly judge a matter requires that we give full credit for both good and bad.[10]

Regarding some of her “bad,” it is as Howard A. Snyder says in his Intervarsity Press book, The Problem Of Wineskins: “It is hard to escape the conclusion that today one of the greatest roadblocks to the gospel of Jesus Christ is the institutional church . . . [it] too often represents something radically different from the Jesus Christ of the Bible.”[11]

It also is as Robert C. Girard says in his Zondervan Press book, Brethren, Hang Together: “The church itself, because of its institutional focus, has become a major hindrance to the fulfillment of Christ’s scheme for effective revelation of Himself in the word. This is extremely difficult (perhaps impossible) for those committed to the perpetuation of the church as an institution to see. Much of the American evangelical movement, for instance, is presently engaged in a narcissistic love affair with success, power, and cultural acceptance. On its current crest of prestige . . . it will find it extremely difficult to face the suggestion that it is doing anything wrong.”[12]

Let’s Stop The War!

We who have seen the truth about the two houses of Israel, Ephraim and Judah, Christians and Jews, we, above all people, should be aware of the enmity that has so long existed between them.[13] We also should realize that both perpetuate some error, and both put forth some truth in their doctrines, both seek the title of Israel for themselves, and each discounts the other as a legitimate heir of Israel.

The truth is that Ephraim and Judah are the “Two Witnesses.” Each gives forth a certain testimony about the God of Israel. As such, each has been given a different “job” to do.[14] Judah has kept alive the Law and the Feasts of Israel, and the Church has kept alive the truth that Jesus is the Messiah. But, the fact is, we need both the Feasts and the Messiah. If we have only Messiah, we do not know how to fully celebrate Him. If we have only the Feasts, we do not have the primary reason for celebrating them.

As Believers, when we unrighteously judge, favoring or disparaging either house, we only succeed in perpetuating their ancient war.

If we want to see the “Two Sticks” of Ephraim and Judah made “one” in the Father’s Hand, it is incumbent upon us to begin to fairly and rightly judge the two. For, there are those in both houses to whom the Lord would have us minister, and any undeserved partiality perceived in us may be used to turn them away.

When we give credit where credit is due, when we seek to correct with perfect equity, then, we cease to be part of the problem and begin to be part of the solution. Then, we can be used to awaken Ephraim, and so to reunite the two houses of Israel.

And so we pray that all our exhortations, whether directed toward Judah or Ephraim, be given in this spirit: that our intent be not so much to speak against their past errors, as it is to speak for the glorious future to which both Judah and Ephraim are called.[15]


[1] Other house:  see Jeremiah 1:10, 16; Isaiah 8:14. Melo means fullness, and goyim means Gentiles. Jacob prophesied that the descendants of Ephraim would become “a fullness of Gentiles.” (Genesis 48:19) See Strong’s words #4393 and 1471. Also, the ArtScroll Tanach Series says m’loh means, a “fullness” and, “Connotes abundance . . . meaning: His seed will become the abundance of the nations . . . They will have to inhabit lands of other nations.” (Genesis, Vol 6, page 2121).
[2] See Batya Ruth Wootten, “The Fall And Restoration of Rootless Ephraim,” House of David Herald 5-3 (March 1993), and “Battling Brothers,” ibid. (volume unknown)
[3] Lamentations 3:23, Jeremiah 31:22; Isaiah 65:17, Revelation 21:1.
[4] See Batya Ruth Wootten, “Rapture or Transformation? Escape or Victory,” House of David Herald 7-4 (April 1995).
[5] See Batya Ruth Wootten and Lynnette Delacruz, “The Crossroads At Laodicea,” House of David Herald 7-11 (November 1993).
[6] Ibid.
[7] See Batya Ruth Wootten, “Apprehending Abraham’s Blessings,” House of David Herald 5-8 (August 1993).
[8] Yeshua repeatedly called some of their traditions, “your” traditions (Matthew l5:3,6; Mark 7:9, 13. See Colossians 2:8).
[9] Angus and Batya Wootten, “Who Told You?” House of David Herald 5-1 (October 1993), and Wootten and Delacruz, “The Crossroads at Laodicea.”
[10] See 1 Corinthians 5:12, Psalm 96:10; 98:9, 99:4.
[11] Howard A. Snyder, chapter 1, The Problem of Wineskins: Church Structure in Technological Age (Intervarsity Press, 1975).
[12] Robert C. Girard, Preface, Brethren, hang together: Restructuring the church for relationships (Zondervan, 1979).
[13] See Batya Ruth Wootten, “How Can We Stop the Nations from Molesting Israel?” House of David Herald 4-8 (October 1992), and Wootten, “Battling Brothers.”
[14] Judah witnesses to the fact that the God of Israel has a high standard which is outlined in His Law. Ephraim witnesses to the fact that by Grace, we can be redeemed from the curse that comes from breaking that Law. The Two Witnesses: Judah and Ephraim, Law and Grace. See Batya Ruth Wootten, “The Olive Tree and Its ‘Natural Branches’,” and “Torah and the Two Witnesses,” House of David Herald 12-7 (July 2000) and 6-11 (November 1994).
[15] When Ephraim and Judah unite as brothers, they become a dedicated army, one that truly serves Yahweh Tze’va’ot, “The Lord of Hosts, the God of the armies of Israel.” See 1 Samuel 17:45; Isaiah 11:13-14;  Obadiah 1:18; Zechariah 9:13;  Ezekiel 37:15-28.

Father’s Torah and Man’s Heart, by Angus and Batya Wootten

[Editor’s note: It is probably a human tendency to assume that others will understand things the same way we do if we just acquaint them with the same information. What we do not take into account is that people have diverse personalities, circumstances, learning styles, and ways of perceiving the world. That translates into diverse understandings of the same information. Which leads to another human tendency: to resist this diversity and compel others to accept our own understanding as the correct view.
Perhaps the saddest corollary to these tendencies is that spiritually minded people are not immune to them. In fact, some of the worst excesses in human history have come because of religious differences. The Torah Awakening is no exception. This is something Angus and Batya Wootten addressed in an article published in the House of David Herald in 1999.
Since Angus left us for his eternal reward earlier this year, BYNA has been republishing his articles in tribute to his memory and in honor of his contributions to the awakening of the House of Joseph in our generation. The article posted here is the first of many we will post that Angust co-authored with Batya. While both of them wrote well and persuasively, in their collaboration we see the melding of male and female perspective to present their complete heart as a couple. Angus’ legacy would not be complete without Batya, and her legacy is incomplete without him. As we approach Sukkot, the time our Heavenly Father has set apart for Messiah and His Bride to become one, we examine what Angus and Batya share as foundational to our forward progress. Their counsel? Rather than preach and argue, celebrate!]

Father’s Torah and Man’s Heart

By Angus and Batya Wootten – May 1999

As redeemed Israel, how does the Father want us to walk? In particular, how does He want us to handle the issue of “law versus grace”?

We must answer these questions because, as we labor to restore both “Judah and Ephraim” as brothers, we continually encounter two primary problems, both of which have to do with the “partial hardening” of “both the houses of Israel” (Romans 11:25; Isaiah 8:14; Genesis 48:19).

These problems are:

    1. Judah’s blindness to Messiah Yeshua as our “Divine Redeemer” (Psalm 49:7-9,15).[1]
    2. Ephraim’s blindness to the “wisdom of Torah” (Hosea 8: 12; Deuteronomy 4:6).[2]

Because Israel’s restoration primarily begins with Ephraim’s actions (Isaiah 11:13; Jeremiah 31:18-19; Romans 11), we focus on his problem with “Torah.” For, with this Issue, we wish to begin a series of “Torah Studies.” However, we want them to be of a different spirit than most Torah studies we have seen thus far.

So, in our attempt to rebuild “David’s fallen house,” we will first establish the “types of materials” we will use, and we will define a certain “framework.”

To begin, we see that in the parable of the prodigal, Yeshua tells of a father who has a younger “prodigal” son, who in turn has an older brother who is not happy about the wanderer’s return home (Luke 15:11-32).

This story well depicts Ephraim’s and Judah’s present state. For, in our day many of Believing Ephraim (Genesis 48:19) are coming to a place of repentance (Jeremiah 31:18-19), and they want to return “home” to their “roots.” However, in many cases, the older son, “Judah,” is not happy with Ephraim’s emersion from the pig sty.

Again, we seek to reunite the Father’s “two brothers.” And in our article “From Orphans to Heirs,” we explained that the “how do we reunite them” answer is for Ephraim to “celebrate.”[3]

To provoke the older brother [Judah] to jealousy, Ephraim must “make merry and be glad;” he must “celebrate and rejoice.” For our Heavenly Father wants Judah to “join the party.” He even wants those of Ephraim to make Judah “want” to join the celebration.

Yes, that is the job long ago assigned to Ephraim: Make Judah want what you have! To have Ephraim (they being the formerly “wild olive branches”) provoke Judah to “jealousy” was, and still is, the Father’s plan of salvation for “all Israel” (Jeremiah 11:10, 16; 2:18, 21; Romans 11).

The problem is, to accomplish this divine assignment, Ephraim, who has for so long seen himself as an orphan, needs to see that he too is an heir. For, then, he will cease to be “jealous” of Judah (Isaiah 11:13; Jeremiah 31:18-19). Then, he will see Judah as a “member of the family.” Then, the whole house of Israel will find total healing and restoration. And thus, Ephraim needs to see that the parable of the prodigal offers a solution to the reunion problem.

To Make Jealous – Make Merry!

“Meal during the Feast of Tabernacles (Sukkot),” anonymous, after Bernard Picart, ca. 1720-1725, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.

In this parable, the older brother was provoked because – his younger brother was “celebrating and rejoicing,” or “making merry.” This is translated from euphraino, euphraino (yoo-frah ‘ee-no), which means, to be in a good frame of mind, to make glad, to be or to make merry, to rejoice.[4]

Thus we see that legalism and religion will not provoke Judah. Celebration will (which explains why so many non-Jews feel an unexplainable urge to “celebrate the Feasts of Israel”).[5]

So, as we seek to rebuild David’s fallen tent (Amos 9:11; Acts 15:16), we will not use any form of legalism. It will have no place in this project.

Under the Law?

As we build, we will categorically refuse to have anything to do with putting people “under the Law” (Romans 2: 12).

But . . . on the other hand, we do not want to subject anyone to a bad translation of Scripture.

And, we question whether most people understand what Paul actually meant when he spoke of people being “under the law.” Paul said, “To the Jews I became as a Jew, so that I might win Jews; to those who are under the Law, as under the Law though not being myself under the Law, so that I might win those who are under the Law” (1 Corinthians 9:20).

Was Paul saying he was a two-faced chameleon who felt the end justified the means? Or, is Paul’s statement better translated in David Stern’s Jewish New Testament?

With Jews, what I did was put myself in the position of a Jew, in order to win Jews. With people in subjection to a legalistic perversion of the Torah, I put myself in the position of someone under such legalism, in order to win those under this legalism, even though I myself am not in subjection to a legalistic perversion of the Torah.

Paul is explaining that, when he encountered a Jew who was in bondage to legalism, he empathized with him. He identified with him. He tried to speak his language. But . . . Paul himself was not in such bondage.

Instead, Paul explains what he does identify with:

He says, “With those who live outside the framework of Torah, I put myself in the position of someone outside the Torah in order to win those outside the Torah – although I myself am not outside the framework of God’s Torah but within framework of Torah as upheld by the Messiah.” (1 Corinthians 9:21 JNT)

Messiah’s Torah Framework

The “framework” upon which Messiah hung the Torah is, “Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind. This is the great and foremost commandment. And the second is like unto it, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. On these two commandments depend the whole Law and the Prophets.” (Matthew 22:36-40)

Love” is the framework upon which all Torah instruction must hang. For if we “know all mysteries and all knowledge,” but “do not have love,” we are “nothing” (1 Corinthians 13:2).

All Torah teaching must first be based on a true love of God and neighbor (Leviticus 19:18).

But even that is not enough. . . .

Teachers of Torah must always point to and lift up Messiah Yeshua. For, all things are being “summed up” in Him. He “fills all,” is “in all,” and must always be our focus (Ephesians 1:10-11, 23; John 12:32).

Moreover, “if we are led by the Spirit, we will not be under the [perverted system that distorts the truth of the) Law.” (Galatians 5:18) Further, we will not subject ourselves, nor allow others to subject us to, the perversion of legalism. We will not submit to it for a minute (Galatians 2:5).

But on the other hand . . . It is not wise to throw out the proverbial baby with the bath water – which is what Ephraim has done in the past.

The perfectly good “baby” we have thrown out is called “Wisdom.” For our Father says of His Torah Instructions: “Keep and do them, for that is your wisdom and your understanding.” (Deuteronomy 4:6)

Wisdom is translated from the Hebrew word chokmah (khok-maw). It speaks of good sense, of being skillful, of acting wisely.[6]

Surely we do not want to throw out good sense. And so in our restoration process we will honor good sense by looking to the Torah for answers (2 Timothy 3:16). However . . . we also must have the good sense to know that we cannot boast about being a “Torah keeper.” For, it is impossible for anyone to truly “keep” Torah because its sacrificial system has been abolished. We cannot keep all of Torah. Because, to “keep” Torah, we must keep all of Torah (Romans 2:25; Galatians 5:3; Jeremiah 9:25).

So, boasting about observing Torah principles is not something we can use in this rebuilding program.

Besides, we should have the “good sense” to realize that if our Father laid down certain laws, and then it became literally impossible for us to keep those laws (i.e., Deuteronomy 16:2; Exodus 30:19-20), then we can only conclude one of two things: Either He is impotent and asleep at the switch, or, He is trying to send us a message.

The answer is the latter, and the message is, by the power of His Ruach HaKodesh He will write His New Covenant Torah on the tablets of our formerly stony hearts. Thus, the work is done by the Holy Spirit – not by boasting about our keeping Torah (Jeremiah 31:31-33; Hebrews 8:10, 10:16).

Excesses

Returning to our question, “How does the Father want Israel to walk?” it appears the supposed “answers” are primarily divided into two camps:

    1. “Law” that leads to “legalism”
    2. “Grace” that leads to “licentiousness”

Legalism versus licentiousness. Self-righteousness versus self-indulgence. Both are excesses. Both lead to a pit. So, what is the answer?

To begin, we try to define “Law and Grace.” And, grace is simply, unmerited favor. However, the Hebrew word Torah – usually translated law – means a precept or statute, especially the Decalogue or Pentateuch, and it comes from yarah, a root word meaning, to flow as water (i.e. to rain); to throw, especially an arrow (see 2 Chronicles 26: 15), to shoot; to point out, to teach, to direct, inform, instruct, show, teach.[7]

However, the English word law primarily means, “a rule of conduct or procedure established by custom, agreement, or authority . . . rules and principles governing the affairs of a community . . . a legal system . . . justice . . . legislation; legal action, proceedings, litigation . . . absolute authority. . . .” (The American Heritage Dictionary).

What we miss through our use of the word law is the Hebrew root of Torah, meaning the emphasis of, to flow as water, to be like an arrow, to point out, to direct, to inform, instruct, to show, to teach.

Yahveh says of His Instructions: “Keep and do them, for that is your wisdom and your understanding in the sight of the peoples who will hear all these statutes and say, ‘Surely this great nation is a wise and understanding people.’” And, “You shall therefore keep every commandment which I am commanding you today, so that you may be strong and go in and possess the land.” (Deuteronomy 4:6; 11:8)

If with a right heart attitude, we seek to walk in these commands, then, we will be made strong – courageous, able to conquer, of good courage, mighty, able to prevail, to behave valiantly.[8]

However, if we are legalistic and self-righteous about our being so “mature” that we are now “keeping” Torah, we will be used by the evil one to blind others to the strength and wisdom that flows forth from Torah. We will cause our Father’s people to miss the benefit of truths that teach His finer ways – truths that help them flow in the right direction, and to overcome life’s adversities.

Thus, in our studies we will seek to destroy every destructive implement of the evil one that we can find. And, we will seek to build up by using every wise Torah tool available to us.\

Laying Down the Law of Grace

Concerning “Grace only” teachings, we find that, if we lay down a “law” that “gives the answer,” then we have created yet another “law.” This is so even if we say there is “no law, but only grace.” For then, “grace only” becomes our “law.”

While we are saved only by “grace” (Ephesians 2:8), still, the fact remains that our Messiah has eternal laws (John 12:48-50). Moreover, it also is a fact that He shows mercy to lawbreakers.

Law and Grace. Both are true. Both are depicted in their true harmony in the life of Messiah Yeshua. For, He kept all the Father’s law, and yet was and still is, the personification of Grace.

Does grace have to necessarily do away with Torah? Can we not use the truths of both law and grace to rebuild David’s fallen booth?

Yes, we can and we will. However, to settle this ancient dispute, we must realize that, it is not really an argument about law “versus” grace. Instead, it is an issue of the “attitudes” of the proponents of either side. For, transgression first proceeds from the heart: “Out of the heart come evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false Witness, slanders.” (Matthew 15:19)

Thus Hebrews 4:12 explains, “The word of God is living and active. Sharper than any double-edged sword, it penetrates even to dividing soul and spirit, joints and marrow; it judges the thoughts and attitudes of the heart.”

Our Father’s Word is an ever-acting critic of the thought-life, motivations, and purposes of our human hearts. It reveals the hidden things. Thus, “all things are naked and open to the eyes of Him to whom we must give account.” (Hebrews 4: 13)

This is true even if we are ignorant of the Father’s teachings. For, “The requirements of the law are written in our hearts, our consciences also bearing witness, and our thoughts now accusing, now even defending us.” (Romans 2: 15)

The Ruach HaKodesh is always at work in us, either bearing witness in our hearts that what we are thinking or doing is correct, or attempting to convict us of our error.

Thus, the argument is not one of “law versus grace.” Instead, heart attitude is the issue. And, the “heart” of the New Covenant promised to Israel is that, Yahveh will put His “laws in their minds and write them on their hearts.”

Our Father promised to “make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah. Not like the covenant . . . made with their fathers . . . which they broke.” Instead, He says, He will make a new covenant only with “the house of Israel.” Of it, He says, “I will put My law within them and on their heart I will write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people.” (Jeremiah 31:31-33)

Our Father found “fault” with both houses: Israel (Ephraim) and Judah (Hebrews 8:8-10). And, when they fully enter into His new covenant, they are “Israel.” He no longer accepts their divided state. Instead, He makes a new covenant only with a reunited “Israel.” (Ephesians 2: 14)

Further, this covenant will not be totally fulfilled until the millennial age – for, at that time, “They will not teach again, each man his neighbor and each man his brother, saying, ‘Know the Lord,’ for they will all know Me, from the least of them to the greatest of them,’ declares the Lord, ‘for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin I will remember no more.” (Jeremiah 31:34; Hebrews 8:11)

Until that time, the Father is still attempting to write His Torah truths on the hard hearts of His scattered Israelite children.

Accepting the Yoke of the Holy One

In the past, Ephraim had a bad attitude toward Torah, and, the Father said of him, “Though I wrote for him ten thousand precepts of My law, they are regarded as a strange thing.” (Hosea 8:12) And, “Ephraim is a trained heifer that loves to thresh, but I will come over her fair neck with a yoke; I will harness Ephraim.” (Hosea 10:1 1)

So, He sent Messiah, and He told us to, “Take My yoke upon you and learn from Me, for I am gentle and humble in heart, and you will find rest for your souls.” (Matthew 11:29)

Once the veil is lifted from Ephraim‘s heretofore blinded eyes, once he is properly “instructed” (Jeremiah 31:18), then in Messiah Yeshua, Ephraim will accept the “yoke” of a Torah that is based on love. For, Messiah’s Torah yoke is a gentle yoke that brings rest to the weary soul.

Thus, in our rebuilding program we will not use tools of pagan trade, nor build with “traditions of men,” be they from Rome or Babylon. Instead, we will seek to destroy all deviant teachings – Christian and/or Jewish (Isaiah 27:9).

With our Torah study we issue a call to all Israel to, “Come up higher.” For, if we will respond to this call and begin to build in true righteousness, we will soon see David’s glorious, fully restored tent!

So . . . Let the building program begin!


[1] See Batya Ruth Wootten, “Forsaking Our First Love,” “Is the ‘Greek’ New Covenant Inspired? Is Yeshua Divine,” and “The I Am, His Son, and The ‘Trinity,’” House of David Herald 8-10 (October 1996), 8-6 (June 1996), and 8-7 (July 1996).
[2] See Batya Ruth Wootten, “Good Laws – Bad Attitudes,” “Torah and The Two Witnesses,” and, Yahveh’s Calendar versus Compromise With Babylon and Rome,” House of David Herald 6-10 (October 1994), 6-11 (November 1994), and 6-8 (August 1994).
[3] Batya Ruth Wootten, “From Orphans to Heirs,” House of David Herald 9-12 (December 1997).
[4] Strong’s word #G2165.
[5] For celebration suggestions see Batya Ruth Wootten, “Celebrating Passover As Never Before!” “Shavuot and Two Leavened Loaves,” “Yahveh‘s Calendar versus Compromise with Babylon and Rome,” “Restoring The Fallen Booth of David: A Tabernacles Celebration,” House of David Herald 9-3 (March 1997), 9-5 (May 1997), 6-10 (October 1994), 5-9 (September 1993); and Angus and Batya Wootten, “The Way of the Gentiles,” House of David Herald 5-12 (December 1993).
[6] Strong’s Concordance word #H2451.
[7] Strong’s Concordance words # 8451 and 3384 respectively.
[8] 7 Strong’s Concordance word # H2388.

The Jubilee Generation! by Angus Wootten

[Editor’s note: Ever since Yeshua ascended to the Father, Christians have kept their eyes on the sky looking for His return and the completion of His Messianic mission. What has seldom come into Christian consciousness, however, is that Jews have looked for completion of that same Messianic mission for far longer than the 2,000 years since Yeshua walked the earth. It seems that the Jewish focus is not solely on heaven – the involvement of which is necessary for Messiah to do all that is prophesied – but here on earth. They know better than Christians have known that the messianic promises revolve around the final redemption and restoration of Israel.
Angus Wootten grasped both the Christian and the Jewish perspectives on this matter. He saw them not as mutually exclusive eschatological approaches, but as complementary. The key to reconciling them, as he intimates in this 1998 article, is in the revelation that there is a very large non-Jewish portion of Israel which has been hidden from view for nearly three millennia in accordance with the pronounced judgment of the Almighty on the rebellion of His ancient covenant nation. That hidden part of Israel is coming into view even now, as Angus explains.]


The Jubilee Generation!

By Angus Wootten – November 1998

The seventh angel sounded; and there were great voices in heaven, saying, “The kingdoms of this world are become the kingdoms of our Adonai [Lord], and of his Mashiach [Anointed One]; and He shall reign for ever and ever.” (Revelation 11:15).

How does the Holy One of Israel, the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, plan to accomplish this age – ending event? How will He realize His Messianic Vision, which is to manifest His presence – in His earthly Kingdom – in the midst of a united people.

To reach this goal, obviously one of His larger challenges is, “uniting His people, Israel.” The above is taken from the Herald article, “The Messianic Vision.”[1] While this article gives a good answer to the “how” question, it does not give the fullest answer to the “when” question.

Undoubtedly, our generation is closer to the return of Messiah, and to the establishment of His Kingdom here on earth, than any previous generation! But how close is that? And what is so special about this generation that We should believe that we are “the generation”?

The generation that experiences this age-ending event will realize fulfillment of Yeshua’s mission:

And He came to Nazareth, where He had been brought up; and as was His custom, He entered the synagogue on the Sabbath, and stood up to read. And the book of the prophet Isaiah was handed to Him. And He opened the book, and found the place where it was written, “the Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because He anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim release to the captives, and recovery of sight to the blind, to set free those who are downtrodden, to proclaim the favorable year of the Lord. . .” And. . ., “Today this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing.” (Luke 4: 18-21)

According to the rabbinical custom of Yeshua’s day, reference to this verse in Isaiah would have been thought to include the entire passage.

Continuing, we see that Yeshua was declaring that He been sent,

To proclaim the favorable year of the Lord, and the day of vengeance of our God; to comfort all who mourn . . . giving them a garland instead of ashes, the oil of gladness instead of mourning, the mantle of praise instead of a spirit of fainting. So they will be called oaks of righteousness, the planting of the Lord, that He may be glorified. Then they will rebuild the ancient ruins, they will raise up the former devastations, and they will repair the ruined cities, the desolations of many generations. And strangers will stand and pasture your flocks, and foreigners will be your farmers and your vine dressers. But you will be called the priests of the Lord; you will be spoken of as ministers of our God. You will eat the wealth of nations, and in their riches you will boast. Instead of your shame you will have a double portion, and instead of humiliation they will shout for joy over their portion. Therefore they will possess a double portion in their land, everlasting joy will be theirs. . . . (Isaiah 61:2-9)

Yeshua said in the synagogue in Nazareth, “Today this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing.” Yet, today, some two thousand years later, from our finite viewpoint, Yeshua’s declaration has not yet been fully fulfilled.

Truly Yahveh’s ways are not our ways, especially when it comes to “time.”

So, how did Yeshua fulfill these Scriptures?

He set in motion a plan, which, in the fullness of time will see every jot and tittle of these verses accomplished.

Further, every generation since has played an integral part of this fulfillment. However, even though prior generations have gained approval by passing the torch of faith to the next generation, they did not receive what was promised. Because, it yet remains for a generation to carry the torch across the finish line, at which time all things will be perfected (Hebrews 11:39-40).

Could we be that final generation? Could we be the “finish line generation,” the generation that will see captives being set free, the blind regaining their sight, the lame being healed, and having their land returned? Will we experience the fulness of the “favorable year of the Lord”?

If so, truly we will experience the ultimate “Jubilee!”

The Concept of Jubilee

At the core of the idea of “jubilee” is the Mosaic doctrine, that all things, all creatures in the world do not belong to men at all, but to Yahveh alone.

The biblical law of redemption makes “jubilee” possible. This jubilee law deals with the fact that the land should not be sold in perpetuity, for it belonged to Yahveh, and those in bondage should, and could be, redeemed. The redemption of land and of those in bondage could be accomplished at any time by a kinsman redeemer. Otherwise, in the year of Jubilee the land would revert back to the owner, and those in bondage would be freed (Leviticus 25:23-55).

Biblically, the year of Jubilee is celebrated in the fiftieth year. In this year, agricultural lands sold during the past 49 years are returned to their original owners, and any Israelite that is in bondage is set free.

Seventeen Jubilees were celebrated from the time Joshua took the land until the destruction of the First Temple. Then upon Judah’s return from Babylon, the count began again, and it stopped with the destruction of the Second Temple.

Though in this present year [1998] the state of Israel is celebrating a jubilee of its founding, still, it is not a Biblical jubilee. Perhaps the reason Jewish religious leaders have not yet called for a Biblical jubilee is because, according to the Talmud, the Jubilee Year laws are in force only when all the tribes are living in “Eretz Israel” (TB Ar. 32b).

Again, we ask, could we be that jubilee generation?

The answer is, “Yes!”

Why?

Because the first jubilee generation saw the first advent of Israel’s Messiah. Therefore, would not the second jubilee generation be an appropriate time for His return? Would not a jubilee generation be the time to make the kingdoms of this World the Kingdom of our Messiah? Surely that would be fulfilling the very essence of Yahveh’s jubilee principals – by asserting His ownership of all the earth, and its population, and for all creation to acknowledge His Lordship. At that time every knee will bow and every tongue will confess that He and He alone is Lord!

How do we know that Yeshua came in the first jubilee generation? Further, how do we know that we are the second jubilee generation?

Defining A Generation

To begin, a generation is the period from a man’s birth to the birth of his son. It also can refer collectively to the people who lived in a like period.

Scripturally, the average length of a generation is most often assumed to be forty years. For, in the wilderness all the men over twenty died within a forty-year time frame. The forty year span of the rule of David and Solomon, and of four of the judges, adds support for a forty year generation. However, we also find Scriptural support for a hundred year generation: Yahveh told Abraham that his descendants would be in a foreign land four hundred years and then He would bring them out in the “fourth generation.”

Matthew’s genealogy further complicates the problem of determining the length of a generation. His genealogical list gives forty-two generations from Abraham to the birth of Yeshua (Matthew 1: 17). It gets complicated when we try to determine the time span of these forty-two generations. If we use hundred year generations, we have a 4200 year span. If we use forty years, we have a 1680 year span. However, neither of these time spans fits with known history. Further, the general agreement among biblical scholars is that Yeshua was born in 5 or 6 B.C., and that Abraham was born in the period of 2000 B.C. to 2200 B.C.

The answer that solves this dilemma and also fits with history is:

From the flood to the Exodus from Egypt, generations were 100 years long, afterwards, they were forty years long. This reasoning, when applied to Matthew’s genealogy, gives us eight one-hundred year generations: Abraham, Isaac. Jacob, Jacob’s twelve sons, and four generations in Egypt – and thirty-four forty-year generations. Using this rationale (34 x 40 = 1360 + 800 = 2160), and back-dating from 6 B.C., we arrive at 2166 B.C. as Abraham’s year of birth. This is the exact date given by the NIV Study Bible Old Testament Chronology for Abraham’s birth. Further, this perception of generations would place the flood some seven to eight hundred years earlier, and well within the time frame that is acceptable to the majority of scholars.

After Yahveh had virtually destroyed the ancient world with the flood, we find that His plan to have a people for His own possession is to be accomplished through the descendants of Noah’s son, Shem. This means Shem’s son Arphaxed represents the first generation of the post-flood world. And, from Arphaxed to Abraham, there are seven generations. Add these seven generations to the forty-two generations from Abraham to Yeshua, and we have forty-nine generations. Thus, Yeshua then came in the fiftieth generation. or first jubilee generation: 6 B.C. to 34 A.D.

This in turn means the first generation after Yeshua would have begun in 35 A.D., which year is also thought to be the year of Paul’s conversion.

Paul conversion is key to the almost 2000 year effort to renew the world spiritually, and to regather Yahveh’s people. This mission stands in contrast to the mission of Noah’s sons, which was to repopulate the world physically.

And, the next fiftieth generation from Yeshua, meaning the second jubilee generation, began in 1996 A.D.!

So. today, in 1998 A.D., we live in the second year of the fiftieth generation from Yeshua, and in the one hundredth generation from the flood!

Are there other events that would validate that this is the generation that will see the “favorable year of the Lord?”

The first act of the second Jubilee was the end of Israel’s (Ephraim’s) punishment. After twenty-seven-hundred and thirty years, Ephraim’s blindness to his heritage was being removed. He was being freed from the sentence of being a people who were “not a people” (Hosea 1:9, Ezekiel 4:5). Truly this was a favorable year for Ephraim!

To understand the punishment of Ephraim, and its length, we quote largely from the Herald article, “Ephraim, Free At Last! Once Again A Mighty Man!”[2]

Ephraim’s Punishment

The Prophets Hosea and Amos explained why and how Israel would be punished for their iniquity: “Israel is swallowed up; They are now among the nations. Like a vessel in which no one delights” (Hosea 8:8). And, “I will shake the house of Israel among all nations as grain is shaken in a sieve, But not a kernel will fall to the ground” (Amos 9:9).

Bala, the Hebrew word for swallow, which word Hosea uses in his description of Ephraim’s punishment, has the connotation of someone eating a piece of food, and having it become a part of their body. For example, today, try to find, or identify in your body, the food you ate last week. Even so, Ephraim was destined to be punished, by being swallowed up by the Gentile nations, and so to become an indistinguishable part of them. This punishment has been in effect until this generation, and during this time of blindness, Ephraim has not known who he is!

From Ezekiel we gain an understanding of the duration of Ephraim’s punishment. For Yahveh told Ezekiel to, “Lay on your left side and put the sin of the House of Israel upon yourself. You are to bear their sin for the number of days you lie on your side for I have assigned to you a number of days corresponding to the number of years of iniquity [of Israel] . .  390 days. Thus you shall bear the iniquity of the House of Israel”

We know Yahveh spoke of Ephraim/Israel because He also said, “After you have finished this, lie down again on your right side and bear the sin of the House of Judah. I have assigned you 40 days, a day for each year” (Ezekiel 4:4-6).

To understand this punishment we need to see that Ezekiel lived 135 years after the Northern Kingdom of Israel (Ephraim) had become “no more.” Yet, Yahveh had not forgotten about them, because through Ezekiel, He explains the length of their punishment for their iniquity.

The people of the northern ten tribes would not repent of their paganism. Further, Yahveh was adamant that He is a jealous God, and that Israel was to have “no other gods” before Him. Yet, He also was, “a compassionate God; who would not fail them nor destroy them nor forget the covenant which He had sworn to their fathers” (Deuteronomy 4:31; 5:9).

Like father like son, Ephraim still has the problem of allowing pagan, or Gentile ways, to creep into his relationship with his God. 

Judah’s Punishment

We gain understanding of the duration of Ephraim’s punishment by first looking at Judah’s punishment:

Ezekiel was instructed to lie on his right side for 40 days, a day for a year. Thus, we see that Judah was to receive 40 years of punishment.

But unfortunately, this forty years is only part of Judah’s punishment. Because, in the account of the two sisters, Aholah (Samaria) and Aholibah (Jerusalem/Judah), we see that they engaged in prostitution when they were young and still in Egypt. Additionally, Aholah/Ephraim was engaged in prostitution with the Assyrians. It was this harlotry with their Assyrian neighbors that led to Aholah’s downfall.

During the century preceding the final destruction of the city of Samaria, the Northern Kingdom was integrated into the Assyrian Empire. Piece by piece various portions of the Northern Tribes became vassals of Assyria, until they were entirely absorbed into the Assyrian Empire. When the City of Samaria fell in 722 B.C., it was just the last little bastion of the Northern Kingdom.[3] It did not take a war for most of Israel to become Assyrian. This fact is confirmed by Yahveh’s statement: “I handed her over to her lovers, the Assyrians, for whom she had lusted.” (Ezekiel 23:9)

Since the Ephraimites had lusted for Gentile ways, Yahveh gave them over to the Assyrians, that they might ultimately be scattered among the Nations, and thus to become “Gentiles.”

Recalling the demise of Aholah, Yahveh said to Aholibah, “You saw your sister in her lust and prostitution, yet you have been more depraved than your sister.” You have gone the way of your sister, so I will put her cup in your hands. You will drink your sister’s cup, a cup large and deep and it will bring scorn and derision for it holds so much.”

Judah’s sister’s cup contained 390 years of punishment! Thus, adding 390 years of punishment to the 40 years which Judah initially received. And that gives a total of 430 years of punishment for Judah.

When did Judah’s punishment start?

Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, subdued Judah in 595 B.C.. After this date, they no longer had political or religious control over their own territory, Jerusalem, nor over their temple.

Thus, if we take 596 B.C. as the first year of their punishment, and if we move forward 430 years we come to 166 B.C.

What happened in 166 B.C.?

The Maccabees revolted against the Greeks.

In coming to 166 B.C., we come to the time of the Maccabees victory over the Greeks, and to the miracle cleansing of the temple – the time when they found only enough oil in the temple to last for one day. But miraculously this one day supply of oil lasted for eight days, giving them time to make a fresh supply of oil. This miracle is celebrated as the Feast of Hanukkah (Feast of Dedication). Judah‘s punishment was over, and they had regained religious and political control over their temple and a large portion of their territory.[4]

The Length Of Ephraim’s Punishment?

Pencil drawing on greenish paper (brown wash) of king Tiglath-pileser III enthroned, by Charles Doswell Hodder. From a bound set of original drawings made at the time of the nineteenth-century discoveries in Assyria. Many of these drawings were used by Layard in his publications of the 1840s and 1850s. British Museum, London, item 2007,6024.10.

Now let us go back to Ephraim. He was assigned 390 years of punishment. Correct?

No. For unfortunately, Ephraim would receive far more than 390 years. We understand this through Yahveh’s fourfold declaration given in the Twenty Sixth Chapter of Leviticus. This declaration establishes unrepentant Ephraim’s fate:

If also after these things, you do not obey Me, then I will punish you seven times more for your sins. . . If then, you act with hostility against Me and are unwilling to obey Me, I will increase the plague on you seven times according to your sins. . . Then I will act with hostility against you; and I, even I, will strike you seven times for your sins. . . Then I will act with wrathful hostility against you; and I, even I, will punish you seven times for your sins” (Leviticus 26:18, 21, 24, 28).

When Yahveh declares a punishment, you are going to get it. Regardless. If you sow, you are going to reap. According to Yahveh’s rules you are going to get the punishment – even if you repent. Further, if you don’t repent, you will receive a seven-fold punishment!

Judah received a punishment of 430 years. And, when Judah went to Babylon (that being their punishment), they repented. To this day, the Jewish people (as a whole) do not have idols. And since they repented of their idolatries, their punishment lasted only 430 years.

But, hapless Ephraim never repented. So, the Northern Kingdom received a seven-fold punishment: 390 years times seven, for a total of 2,730 years of punishment.

Exactly what was Ephraim’s punishment?

Yahveh said the Ephraimites would be scattered among the nations, and that they would “lose their identity.” They would become, “Lo Ammi,” meaning “Not A People” (Hosea 1:9-10; 2:2,23).

So poor misguided Ephraim received a sentence of 2730 years – the punishment being he would not be recognizable people – he would lose his identity.

When Did Ephraim’s Punishment Start?

In determining the date of Judah’s punishment, we did not pick the year 585 B.C., which was when Nebuchadnezzar sacked Jerusalem and destroyed Solomon’s temple. Rather, we started from the year, 595 B.C. when Judah no longer had political and religious control over their territories. Therefore, we will apply this same measure to Ephraim. And, while the city of Samaria was finally destroyed in 722 B.C., the majority of the Northern Kingdom had become a vassal state of Assyria by 734 B.C.

Confirmation of these facts is substantiated by the Cuneiform Text of Tiglath-Pileser III, which chronicle his Gaza-Damascus Campaign in 734-33 B.C.

When the armed hordes of Assyrians completed their campaign against Bet-Omri (Israel), Israel was mortally wounded, decimated by deportation, beaten back into a tiny corner of the Northern Kingdom. With the exception of Samaria, all its cities had been annexed, and the country had been divided into provinces over which Assyrian governors and officials exercised strict control.

All that was left of Israel was a dwarf state, a tiny pinpoint on the map: the mountain of Ephraim with the royal city of Samaria.[5]

When Will Ephraim’s Punishment End?

When will Ephraim’s punishment be ended?

If we count 2730 years from 734 B.C., we arrive at the year 1996. If we use the year 722 B.C. as a base, we come up with the year 2008.

Please note: This is not to say that Yeshua will return and reestablish His Kingdom in this twelve year time frame! Unlike the now infamous book, 88 Reasons Why Jesus Will Return In 1988, we are not giving 96 Reasons Why Yeshua Will Return In 1996, nor or we giving 208 Reasons Why Yeshua Will Return In 2008. Rather, we are saying that, at the end of Ephraim’s punishment, Yeshua is free to restore the corporate Kingdom to Israel – and thus to truly celebrate the final jubilee!

Why is it important that we understand Ephraim’s punishment?

Because Ephraim’s punishment is now at an end!

We need to see that Ephraim would not be rewarded with the restoration of the Kingdom to the people of Israel while he is still undergoing the punishment of not being recognizable people! For, they could not be recognized as the people of Israel! And the Church has not seen itself as a co-heir with the Jewish people to the physical promises made to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. Granted, many have taught that they have replaced Jewish Israel, or that they are spiritual Israel. But, Believers have not seen themselves as part of the corporate (physical) people of the commonwealth of Israel – especially they have not seen themselves as a people who need to be reunited with their brother Judah.

When Yeshua returns, His people will be freed! Yet, He had to adhere to His own Word. Therefore, He could not return until the punishment He mandated for those of Ephraim was completed.

Admittedly, we cannot be absolutely sure as to the exact beginning, nor the exact end, of Yahveh‘s decreed punishment. However, we do know this: there is a moment in time when it began, and there will be a moment in time when it ends. We also know that Ephraim’s punishment could not have started any later than 722 B.C. And, that it was only in the last quarter of this century that Messianic non-Jewish Believers began to see that there were two houses of Israel, as described in Scripture (Ephraim and Judah). Further, it is evident that these two houses have not as yet been reunited as one undefiled house. The people of Israel have not yet taken full possession of the land given to their father Abraham. And, the Greater Son of David is not ruling over them.

So it is that we are beginning to see, that, as Ephraimites, we are full-fledged members of the commonwealth of Israel. We are part of the people to whom the Holy One of Israel said He would restore His Kingdom! (Isaiah 8: 14; Ezekiel 37:22-25)

We know that the punishment of Ephraim began no later than 722 B.C., and we know from history that his punishment has been in full force until recent years. What we do not know for sure, is, when Yahveh will deem that it is fully completed. But we do know that Yeshua said: “The generation that sees the fig tree blossom will see His return.” (Matthew 24:32-34)

Surely the fig tree cannot blossom until all the tribes of Israel know their Messiah and realize their heritage, and are living in the land! So Ephraim must now be instructed as to his heritage, and Judah to the identity of their Messiah. Then the two houses will become one reunited house of Israel.

How will Yahveh accomplish this monumental task? Scripture records that it has been His practice to accomplish His purposes on earth through men and women. And, why would we expect He who does not change to change?

If in truth we are the generation that will cross the finish line, then the task of instruction is ours! And, as forerunners who know our Messiah and our heritage, it is our job to lead the way! And, at most, we have thirty- eight years left to do the job.

But, with the help and guidance of the Holy Spirit we can do it! Remember, a journey of a thousand miles begins with one step. The building of the largest structure on earth – the Great Wall of China – began with the placing of one stone. So let us step out and begin instructing the living stones which Yahveh will use to build His House, the united house of Israel (1Peter 2:5).

So, with joy, run your leg of the race!


[1] See Angus Wootten, “The Messianic Vision,” House of David Herald 8-1, January 1996. Republished by B’ney Yosef North America at this link: https://bneyyosefna.com/2643-2/.

[2] See Angus Wootten, “Ephraim Free At Last! Once Again A Mighty Man!,” House of David Herald 8-4, April 1996. Republished by B’ney Yosef North America at this link: https://bneyyosefna.com/ephraim-free-at-last-one-again-a-mighty-man/.

[3] See Angus and Batya Wootten, “The Way Of The Gentiles,” House of David Herald 5-12, December 1993.

[4] See Angus Wootten, “The Price Of Peace,” and Batya Wootten, “Celebrating Hanukkah,” House of David Herald 7-11, November 1995, and 7-12, December 1995.

[5] See The Bible As History, by Werner Keller 1955, pages 245-249, translated from the German, published by William Morrow and Company, New York, in 1956.

A House for All the World’s Prayers

“Jonah sits under the miracle tree near Nineveh,” Caspar Luyken, 1708, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. Music: “The Prayer,” Charlotte Church and Josh Groban, Prelude: The Best of Charlotte Church, Integrity/Columbia(P), Sony Music 2002.

Our Heavenly Father holds out the promise of redemption to every person. Do we really believe that? Or in our hearts do we consider some more worthy of redemption than others?

Isaiah 56:4-8; Jonah 3:10-4:10; Matthew 12:41; Mark 12:15-17

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